Sensors for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins have been developed at the School of Chemistry at Bangor University as part of a KESS P.hD. project for the last 3 years. During this time a number of different electrochemical and spectrometry assays have been developed as outlined in the background section. In October 2013 the Welsh Government awarded a funding grant to further this research in partnership with IPSEN who produce the botulinum neurotoxin product Dysport®.
This research started in September 2010 as a P.hD. project, the aim was to develop an assay which was capable of detecting botulinum neurotoxins. Currently, the toxins are detected by the mouse bioassay which involves injecting live mice with samples and observing them for symptoms of the disease botulism over a number of days. Much focus has been placed on replacing this assay not only due to the suffering of the animals but due to the length of the assay and the costs associated with it.
The assays developed in this project use the botulinum type A, C and E specific protein SNAP-25 attached to a gold surface with the changes to this protein measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy.
- R. Hobbs, C. Thomas, J. Halliwell, C. Gwenin, Rapid Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins – A Review, Toxins (2019), 11(7), 418 DOI.org/10.3390/toxins11070418
- A. C. Savage, N. Buckley, J. Halliwell, and C. D. Gwenin, Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotypes Detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Toxins, 7, 1544-1555 (2015) DOI:10.3390/toxins7051544
- J. Halliwell, A. C. Savage, N. Buckley and C. D. Gwenin, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Biosensor for Detection of Active Botulinum Neurotoxin. Sensing and BioSensing Research, 2, 12-15 (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.sbsr.2014.08.00
- J. Halliwell and C. Gwenin, A Label-Free Colorimetric Assay for the Detection of Active Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A by SNAP-25 Conjugated Colloidal Gold. Toxins, 5, 1381-1391 (2013) DOI:10.3390/toxins5081381
- Gwenin, C.D.; Halliwell, J. Detection of Botulinum Toxin – Publication No. GB2514825B
To successfully replace the mouse bioassay a number of criteria must be met. This project aims to develop a sensor which:-
- Matches the sensitivity of the mouse bioassay
- Does not use animals
- Detects the active form of the toxin
- Is low in cost
- Is easy to run
This project is in collaboration with IPSEN who produce botulinum type A for their product Dysport®. During this project, IPSEN has been kind enough to provide toxin samples along with their vast knowledge and experience and we look forward to extending this partnership.